A a brief history of computing

History and evolution of computer

And they took up huge amounts of space. Photo: A typical transistor on an electronic circuit board. The Atanasoff-Berry computer was able to complete the task in under an hour. These languages were not tied to particular models of computer, but instead the same program could be used on any computer which supported the "language". Originally, he imagined it would be used by the army to compile the tables that helped their gunners to fire cannons more accurately. Two things turned the Apple ][ into a really credible machine for small firms: a disk drive unit, launched in , which made it easy to store data; and a spreadsheet program called VisiCalc, which gave Apple users the ability to analyze that data. Atanasoff, a professor of physics and mathematics at Iowa State University, attempts to build the first computer without gears, cams, belts or shafts. De Forest's original device was a triode, which could control the flow of electrons to a positively charged plate inside the tube.

IBM was hot on Apple's tail and released the AT, which with applications like Lotusa spreadsheet, and Microsoft Word, quickly became the favourite of business concerns. The second generation also saw the first two supercomputers designed specifically for numeric processing in scientific applications.

Atanasoff set out to build a machine that would help his graduate students solve systems of partial differential equations. A zero could then be represented by the absence of an electron current to the plate; the presence of a small but detectable current to the plate represented a one.

The Apple ][ and The Sinclair ZX81a build-it-yourself microcomputer that became hugely popular in the UK when it was launched in They were helped in this task by a young, largely unknown American mathematician and Naval reserve named Grace Murray Hopper —who had originally been employed by Howard Aiken on the Harvard Mark I.

Essay on history of computer

Circuit Board Silicon Chip Mainframes to PCs The s saw large mainframe computers become much more common in large industries and with the US military and space program. But when Babbage pressed the government for more money to build an even more advanced machine, they lost patience and pulled out. The ENIAC's designers had boasted that its calculating speed was "at least times as great as that of any other existing computing machine. The central concept of the modern computer was based on his ideas. Everyone could now own a computer in their palms. A couple of their engineers, Federico Faggin — and Marcian Edward Ted Hoff — , realized that instead of making a range of specialist chips for a range of calculators, they could make a universal chip that could be programmed to work in them all. In particular, when viewing the movies you should look for two things: The progression in hardware representation of a bit of data: Vacuum Tubes s - one bit on the size of a thumb; Transistors s and s - one bit on the size of a fingernail; Integrated Circuits s and 70s - thousands of bits on the size of a hand Silicon computer chips s and on - millions of bits on the size of a finger nail. This simplification is possible because of the following logarithmic property: the logarithm of the product of two numbers is equal to the sum of the logarithms of the numbers. Presper Eckert and John V.

Topics and features: ideal for self-study, offering many pedagogical features such as chapter-opening key topics, chapter introductions and summaries, exercises, and a glossary; presents detailed information on major figures in computing, such as Boole, Babbage, Shannon, Turing, Zuse and Von Neumann; reviews the history of software engineering and of programming languages, including syntax and semantics; discusses the progress of artificial intelligence, with extension to such key disciplines as philosophy, psychology, linguistics, neural networks and cybernetics; examines the impact on society of the introduction of the personal computer, the World Wide Web, and the development of mobile phone technology; follows the evolution of a number of major technology companies, including IBM, Microsoft and Apple.

The first calculator or adding machine to be produced in any quantity and actually used was the Pascaline, or Arithmetic Machinedesigned and built by the French mathematician-philosopher Blaise Pascal between and Gore's Information Infrastructure and Technology Act ofwhich addresses a broad spectrum of issues ranging from high performance computing to expanded network access and the necessity to make leading edge technologies available to educators from kindergarten through graduate school.

Apple released the first generation Macintosh, which was the first computer to come with a graphical user interface GUI and a mouse.

history of computer pdf

Source Pushed on by the excitement of this innovation, the two started a computer manufacturing company, which they named Apple Computers, in With integration very much in their minds, they called it Integrated Electronics or Intel for short.

Commodore unveils the Amigawhich features advanced audio and video capabilities.

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A Brief History of Computing